Cherry MX

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Cherry MX
Cherry MX scale.svg
Family Cherry MX
Introduced 1983-11-07
Keycap mount Cherry MX mount
Hirose Cherry mount
Alps mount
Switch mount PCB mount
plate mount
Patents US4467160 (1983)
Variants of the Cherry MX switch
Cherry MX shipping boxes
A keyboard with MX Blue switches
MX switches with Hirose Cherry branding and keycap mount

Cherry MX is the most popular line of microswitches used in mechanical computer keyboards. Designed by Cherry, they were introduced on 7 November 1983[1] and were initially available only in a linear (smooth), light-resistance version. An entire family of Cherry MX variants was subsequently developed with combinations of these characteristics:

  • Light to heavy resistance
  • With or without tactile feedback (a "bump" the typist can feel on actuation)
  • With or without auditory feedback (clicky/non-clicky)

These variants are generally referred to by stem color, although Cherry officially refers to them by product number.

Design

Cherry MX switches have gold crosspoint contacts. The contact mechanism has one small static terminal, and a movable leaf that is folded against itself at the top. At least two designs of contact mechanism are known. As of 2013, the current system has a very narrow "neck" where it folds back on itself. One known previous design uses more metal and appears to be more complicated; this design has been found in the Hirose Cherry MX Orange[2] and Hirose Cherry MX Clear, as well as Cherry MX Black.[3]

All German Cherry MX switches, and some Japanese-made Hirose MX switches, are branded "CHERRY" on the top; the exact logo used has varied over time. Hirose MX switches were also branded "HCP" (Hirose Cherry Precision).

The shell's design is based on the Cherry M9. The upper shell cannot be removed while the switch is mounted in a plate; it must first be desoldered and removed, as the plate prevents the shell's four retention clips from moving outward. For modification, PCB-mount keyboards are preferred, or enthusiast-created plates with four small cutouts that allow the switches to be opened in-place.

Clicky MX switches use a special two-piece slider with a movable contact that fires the "click collar" downwards on passing the actuation point. When the switch is released, the click collar is pulled back upwards by the slider itself and held in place by the movable contact.

The keycap mount is only 180° rotationally symmetrical. The horizontal (E and W) arms of the cross are around 1.25–1.30 mm thick, while the vertical (N and S) arms are 1.05–1.10 mm thick. Keycaps do not always fit sideways. The stem is around 3.7 mm tall and sits on a platform that descends inside the switch, allowing the full travel to be greater than the stem's height.

Variants

Force-travel diagram (CN/mm) of the downstrokes of the most common Cherry MX switches

Common variants

The most common Cherry MX variants are Black and Red for linear switches; and Clear, Brown and Blue for tactile switches. Keyboards based on the clicky MX Green and tactile MX Grey variants also exist; but due to their heavier resistance, these variants are usually reserved for spacebars.

Hirose Cherry

Hirose Cherry Precision ("Cherry Japan") manufactured a version of the MX switch with the Hirose Cherry keycap mount. Hirose Cherry MX switches accept standard Cherry MX keycaps, but Hirose keycaps do not fit standard switches.

Other variants

Some rarer Cherry MX variants have transparent switch housings, and allegedly the earliest MX switches all had clear stems.[4]

Old versions of MX Blue switches exist. Because no dye was added to their stems, these switches are called Whites.[Citation needed]

Table of known variants

Name Product code Type Key feel Actuation Hysteresis Mount Stem cam Production
Cherry MX Black.jpg Cherry MX Black MX1A-11xx Normal Linear 60 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX Linear Grey.jpg Cherry MX Linear Grey MX1A-21xx Space bar Linear 80 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX Lock.jpg Cherry MX Lock MX1A-31xx Alternate action Linear 60 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX white.jpg Cherry MX White MX1A-A1xx Normal Clicky 50 cN/80 cN Yes MX Yes Yes
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Click Grey MX1A-B1xx Space bar Clicky 105 cN Yes MX Yes No
Cherry MX clear.jpg Cherry MX Clear MX1A-C1xx Normal Tactile 65 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX Tactile Grey.jpg Cherry MX Tactile Grey MX1A-D1xx Space bar Tactile 80 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX Blue.jpg Cherry MX Blue MX1A-E1xx Normal Clicky 50 cN Yes MX Yes Yes
Cherry MX Green.jpg Cherry MX Green MX1A-F1xx Space bar Clicky 80 cN Yes MX Yes Yes
Cherry MX Brown.jpg Cherry MX Brown MX1A-G1xx Normal Tactile 45 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX red.jpg Cherry MX Red MX1A-L1xx Normal Linear 45 cN No MX No Yes
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Silent Red MX1A-L1xx Normal Linear 45 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX RGB Black.jpg Cherry MX RGB Black MX1A-11xx Normal Linear 60 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX RGB Blue.jpg Cherry MX RGB Blue MX1A-E1xx Normal Clicky 50 cN Yes MX Yes Yes
Cherry MX RGB Brown.jpg Cherry MX RGB Brown MX1A-G1xx Normal Tactile 45 cN No MX No Yes
Cherry MX RGB Red.jpg Cherry MX RGB Red MX1A-L1xx Normal Linear 45 cN No MX No Yes
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Silent RGB Red MX1A-L1xx Normal Linear 45 cN No MX No Yes
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Super Black  ? Special Linear 150 cN  ? MX No No
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Translucent  ?  ? Linear  ?  ? MX  ? No
MXYellow.jpg Cherry MX Yellow  ?  ? Linear  ?  ? MX  ? No
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Pale Grey  ?  ? Linear  ?  ? MX  ? No
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Silver MX1A-??xx Normal Tactile 45cN No MX No Yes
No photograph.svg Cherry MX-M8 Adapter  ? Normal Linear  ?  ? M8  ? No
No photograph.svg Hirose Cherry MX Pale Yellow  ? Normal Linear  ?  ? Hirose No No
No photograph.svg Hirose Cherry MX Grey Green  ? Normal Linear  ?  ? Hirose No No
Hirose Cherry MX Orange.jpg Hirose Cherry MX Orange  ? Normal Linear  ?  ? Hirose No No
MXPaleBlue.jpg Cherry MX Pale Blue  ? Clicky  ? Yes MX Yes No
No photograph.svg Hirose Cherry MX Clear  ? Normal Linear  ?  ? Hirose No No
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Alps Click  ?  ? Clicky  ? Yes? Alps N/A No
No photograph.svg Cherry MX Alps Linear  ?  ? Linear  ?  ? Alps N/A No

Recombination variants

This switch versions can be created by recombining stems and springs from existing Cherry MX switches

Features (as advertised by Cherry)

  • Desktop profile, 0.60 inch (15.2 mm) from PCB (no keycap)
  • Choice of feel: linear, soft tactile, click tactile
  • PCB or frame mount
  • Long life 20–50 million operations (depending on variant)
  • 4 mm travel
  • LED, diode or jumper option
  • 12V maximum AC/DC
  • Current Rating: 10 mA
  • Insulation Resistance: < 100 MΩ at 100V DC

Mounting options

A PCB mountable Cherry MX switch
Comparison between plate and PCB mount switches

Cherry MX switches are available with additional mounting options for either a wire bridge, an LED or a diode.

They are also available for either PCB or plate mounting. Switches for PCB mounting have two additional plastic pins to secure and stabilize them (although plate-mounted switches do not necessarily need these extra pins, as they are stabilized by the metal backplate). PCB-mounted switches can easily be converted for back-plate mounting by cutting off the extra stems.

Mounting designs are specified by the last two digits of the switches' product numbers (see below).

Product numbers

The Cherry MX series follows an eight-digit naming convention: M X [1,5] [A,C] - [0-9, A-Z] [1] [N,R,G,Y,D,J] [N,W,A,B]

  • M: Keyswitch module
  • X: Cherry MX family
  • [1,5]
    • 1: Material: AuAg10, 10mA, max. 12V
    • 5: Special
  • [A,C]
    • A: SPST NO (single pole, single throw, normally open)
    • C: Special
  • [0-9, A-Z] — Operating characteristics, actuation force and key style (switch 'color'):
  • [1,A-Z] — Keystem configuration
    • 1: Standard straight, cross-shaped keystem for standard Cherry MX mount caps
    • G: Special (Germany) with D and H reserved for future use
    • W: Special (USA) with C and F reserved for future use
    • U: Special (UK) with K and E reserved for future use
    • N: Special (Japan) with J and L reserved for future use
    • A: Special (Australia) with Q and M reserved for future use
    • B: Special (Brazil) with S and P reserved for future use
  • [N,R,G,Y,D,J] - Integrated components
    • N: No additional, integrated components
    • R: Red LED
    • G: Green LED
    • Y: Yellow LED
    • D: Diode
    • J: Jumper wire
  • [N,W] - Mounting configuration / case color
    • N: No plastic mounting pins (plate mount) / black case
    • W: With plastic mounting pins (PCB mount) / black case
    • A: No plastic mounting pins (plate mount) / clear case
    • B: With plastic mounting pins (PCB mount) / clear case

Examples of Cherry MX product numbers and their descriptions:

  • MX1A-11NN - Cherry MX Black/linear, no diode, plate mount (no fixing pins)
  • MX1A-E1DN - Cherry MX Blue/tactile clicky, with diode, plate mount (no fixing pins)
  • MX1A-L1RW - Cherry MX Red/low-force linear, red LED, PCB mount (with fixing pins)
  • MX1A-G1JW - Cherry MX Brown/tactile non-clicky, with jumper wire, PCB mount (with fixing pins)

Disassembly

The Cherry MX switch shell is based on Cherry's previous low-profile M9 switch ("low-profile" in the '80s being standard profile from the '90s onward).

PCB-mounted MX switches can be opened in-place, using their four corner holes: Insert a screwdriver into two opposite holes, then pry the side retention tabs away from the switch body. Plate-mounted switches must be removed to be opened, as the plate prevents their side tabs from moving outward to clear the retaining lugs.

Gallery

Accessories

Design

Construction

See also

External links

References

  1. Deskthority — 7 November 1983-2013 | 30 Years Cherry MX!
  2. ちゃたりたいね — Yamaha QX3 Sequencer keyboard
  3. geekhack — This cherry switch
  4. Deskthority — Hirose Cherry switches and the Xerox 1109